Современные электронные средства массовой информации english
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Before that, in the 15th century a way of production of the cheap writing material (paper) and book printing were invented, which became a true revolution in the development of science and education. The exchange of knowledge and the spread of new ideas would have been impossible without that. The radical turn in the development of scientific thought, which led to deep economic changes and the birth of capitalism.
However, the development of scientific thought did not come to Europe without blood. As it was mentioned earlier, in the middle of the 16th century all-European Catholic reaction began, and Italy became its first victim. After the re-organization of the Inquisition in 1542 in Rome the Higher Tribunal was established, headed by cardinal Caraffa. In the reign of this cardinal the struggle with the educated thought and books reached its acme. When cardinal Caraffa became Pope Paul IV, he issued the first “index of forbidden books” in 1559. In the following years this index was periodically reprinted and added to with the greatest works of human thought (Boccaccio and Macchiavelli in particular). A punishment threatened one for reading these books, the books themselves were burnt down. The struggle of the church with the epoch of the Renaissance began. Book censorship was given into the hands of Inquisition, many thinkers died in fire.CONCLUSION
Printing was the greatest achievement of the epoch of the Renaissance, this invention virtually turned over the whole European life in the 16th century. The beginning of the mass spread of the book may be considered the period of the Reformation. On the other hand, Luther himself said that it was printing that helped him to spread his views. The book favoured the spread of the Reformation, which, in its own turn, led to the division of Europe into two fighting camps and to religious wars of the 16th-17th centuries. Books served as a weapon for fighting between the Catholic and the Reformist churches. The institute of censorship appeared and took its final shape in Europe. This censorship somewhere remained up to now.
Together with the publication of works of literary authors the official print also appeared and became a weapon in the hands of state apparatus.
But probably the most important thing is that printing led to lowering prices on books and, therefore, the increase of their availability for the population. This, in its own turn, led to the increase of education and enlightenment among people. There are bourgeois revolutions in Europe, a new class of population is being formed.
Scientific and creative thought is being stimulated, new sciences appear. Printing creates an additional possibility for the spread of scientific knowledge. Literary languages of European peoples’ are formed, which, in their turn, leads to the growth of national self-consciousness.
Fist significant treatises on political philosophy since the times of Antiquity appear. A most important principle of the division of powers appears; the first political parties appear. Europe approaches the epoch of the Enlightenment.REFERENCES
Medeval history. Моscow, 1980.
Энциклопедия Брокгауза и Ефрона. Moscow, 1911.
К. Marx. «Сочинения».Moscow, 1983, vol. 22.
History of literature. Redactor: Z. Plavskin. Мoscow, 1991.
I.Ekimov. Lectures. Tartu, 1993.
History of Estonia.Tallinn, 1982.
N.Kolesnitskiy. Germany in XV-XVII centuries. Moscow, 1980.
Books and printing. Leningrad, 1981.
P.Mizhyef. Books and printing. Moscow, 1913.
H. Bouchot. Le livre, l’illustration, la reliure. Paris, 1886 (quoted from translation).
Рассказы летописей XV-XVII веков. Moscow, 1976.
Typology of readers and biblyografy. Moscow, 1985.
Books in Russia in XVII cent., Leningrad, 1970.
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