The diabetic diet
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. Reduce saturated fat intake (red meat, cheese, whole milk, butter, ice cream, etc.)
. Eat less trans fat (stick margarine, shortening, cakes, pies, french fries, snack chips.)
. Eat less cholesterol (limit egg yolks to more than 4 per week and meat, fish, poultry to no more than 6 ounces a day.)
. Reduce salt intake (canned and dried soups, fast food, frozen dinners, pizza, processed meats and cheese.)
. Eat more fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grain breads, and cereals.
. Maintain a healthy weight. Mild to moderate weight loss (10-20 lbs. has been shown to improve diabetes control, even if desirable body weight is not achieved.)
. Recommend 20-35 grams/day of dietary fiber from a wide variety of foods.
. Be careful when using special diet or dietetic foods such as dietetic cake, cookies, candy and ice cream. These foods contain some form of sweetener and, therefore, calories.
. Monitor blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipids, blood pressure and body weight.
. Exercise at least 30 minutes on most days (brisk walking, aerobics, biking, etc). Regular exercise improves control of blood sugar and is an important part of any healthy lifestyle.
. Experiment with recipes by gradually reducing the amount of sugar by
1/4th then l/3rd then 1/2.
. Use the "sweet" spices—cinnamon cloves ginger or nutmeg—to bring out sweetness in baked goods.
. Read the label to determine the sugar content of packaged foods. In addition to sugar, brown sugar and corn syrup, other names that are used on ingredient labels include: sucrose, glucose, dextrose, fructose, maltose, modified food starch, natural sweeteners, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, honey, corn syrup, corn syrup solids, high fructose corn syrup, molasses, maple syrup.
ABOUT THE MAJOR NUTRIENTS IN THE DIABETIC DIET.
CARBOHYDRATES are made up of simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and fiber. Simple carbohydrates are commonly known as sugars, sources of simple carbohydrates include table sugar, candies and other sweets, sodas and bakery goods. The sugar in these foods is in a form that is absorbed easily by the body, as opposed to the slower-digesting complex carbohydrates.
Complex carbohydrates include all the complex starches and fiber, such as those found in grains, cereals, breads and starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn, peas and beans. Milk, fruit and vegetables also contribute significant amounts of carbohydrate in the diet.
100% of the carbohydrates eaten are broken down into glucose. Therefore carbohydrates elevate the blood sugar at a faster rate than either protein or fat so only measured amounts should be consumed. Complex carbohydrates contain many essential nutrients and are the body's most effective source of energy.
PROTEIN provides amino acids for your body to build, maintain, and
repair cells and muscle tissue, heal wounds, and support the immune system.
It is very easy to get protein in our diet, in fact, most Americans consume
2-3 times more protein than necessary. Excess protein does not create muscle, as many hope, but is stored as fat. Excess protein can put strain on the liver and kidneys. The best protein sources are milk, yogurt, cheese, lean meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. Breads, cereals and vegetables contribute small amounts of protein in the diet. About 60% of the protein eaten are broken down into glucose.
Nutritionists recommend about 45 to 50 grams of protein a day for most women and 50 to 60 grams a day for most men or 10 percent to 20 percent of daily calories. Children and infants, who are growing rapidly, need more protein, as do pregnant women.
FAT, like carbohydrates, are used by the body for fuel and are essential for the absorption of certain vitamins. Although some fat in the diet is necessary, too much fat can lead to heart disease, obesity and other health problems. Fats should comprise no more than 30 % of daily calories, or even lower.
Fats in the diet may be of animal or vegetable origin. Examples of fat
in the diet are gravy, bacon, margarine, butter, cream, salad dressings and
nuts. Meats and some milk products also contain significant amounts of fat.
About 10% of the fat eaten is broken down into glucose. The remainder is stored as fat for future use
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