Башня Лондона (Tower of London)
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Выполнил: студент 5-го курса Института филологии
германо –романского отделения группы 505
Мирзоев Т. А.
1- Introduction – 1
2- The Bell Tower - 2
3- The bloody Tower - 2
4- The Salt Tower – 3
5- The Beauchamp Tower – 3
6- The Wakefield Tower – 4
7- The Martin Tower – 4
8- The White Tower – 5 a) Chaple of St. John The Evangelist – 5 b) The Arms and Armors (part one) – 5 c) The Arms and Armors (part two) – 6
9 The Crown Jewels – 7
10 Ceremonies – 8
a) The Ceremony of Keys – 8 b) The Ceremony of the Lilies and Roses - 9
Ghost stories - 10
a) The Ghost of Anne Boleyn - 10 b) Traitors’ Gate - 11
The Tower of London is a visual symbol of the Norman Conquest of
England. It was built by William the Conqueror with stone that was brought over from Caen. The English do not relish the memory and like to think that the Tower went back to Romans and was founded by Julius Ceaser. This is not true, but some parts of the complex rest on Roman foundations. William I, though, brought over a Norman expert as his artificer, Gundulf, who designed the Tower. The Tower of London is considered now by the Royal
Commission on Historical Monuments as "The most valuable monument of
Medieval military architecture surviving in England."
The Tower was not only a fortress but eventually became a royal palace, state prison, the Mint, a record office, observatory, and zoo. As a state prison it was used for criminals considered most dangerous to the state, and the Mint was the treasury for the Crown Jewels. It became a zoo, the original Zoo, in 1834 when pets that the king had accumulated over the years were among a great diversity. The zoo consisted of lions, leopards, bears wolves, lynxes, etc.
The general appearance of this complex was much as it is today. Inside
the complex, though, there have been many changes. In front of the White
Tower, on the south side, there was a royal palace with private lodgings and great hall. Medieval kings often took refuge in the lodgings. Many historic events took place here too, such as the murder of the princes,
Edward IV's sons. It was custom for kings and queens to spend the night, or a few days, before their coronation in these royal apartments. These royal lodgings were eventually swept away, leaving the Tower all alone.
After William the Conqueror the king that left a lasting impression on the Tower was Henry III. By 1236 he had rebuilt the Great Hall and built the Wakefield Tower next to the royal lodgings. He also built the archway to the Bloody Tower and the main angle towers along the wall.
A direct waterway entrance from the Thames onto the Tower was difficult and for a time unachievable. It wasn't until the oratory was built to the martyr St. Thomas that the foundations were ensured for such an entrance. The Water Gate, or entrance from the Thames into the Tower, later became known as Traiter's Gate. Henry III's son, Edward I, finished off the Tower.
Several episodes reveal the general history of these times. In 1244
Griffith, son of Llewelyn, the last independent Prince of Wales, attempted an escape from the Tower by making a rope out of his bedclothes, which resulted in his death after it broke. During the expulsion of the Jews in
1278, hundreds were kept in the Tower. In 1357-8 the Tower served as an arsenal. Edward III made many preparations for the French war here, which began with a naval victory of Sluys and ended up as the Hundred Years' War.
Beginning life as a simple timber and earth enclosure tucked in the south-
east angle formed by the joining of the original east and south stone walls
of the old Roman town of Londinium Augusta, the original structure was
completed by the addition of a ditch and palisade along the north and west
This enclosure then received a huge structure of stone which in time came to be called The Great Tower and eventually as it is known today
Since the first foundations were laid more than 900 years ago the castle has been constantly improved and extended by the addition of other smaller towers, extra buildings, walls and walkways, gradually evolving into the splendid example of castle, fortress, prison, palace and finally museum that it proudly represents today.
Tower of London is a complex made up of many different sections. The
Tower is surrounded by a moat on three sides and the Thames River on the fourth. The outside fortifications consist of Legge's and Brass Mount. The inner fortifications, called the Ballium Wall, have 13 towers: the Bloody
Tower, the Wakefield Tower, the Bell Tower, the Lanthorn Tower, the Salt
Tower, the Broad Arrow Tower, the Constable Tower, the Martin Tower, the
Brick Tower, the Bowyer Tower, the Flint Tower, the Devereux Tower, and the
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