Башня Лондона (Tower of London)
| Категория реферата: Топики по английскому языку
| Теги реферата: производство реферат, образ сочинение
| Добавил(а) на сайт: Домышев.
Предыдущая страница реферата | 1 2 3 4 5 | Следующая страница реферата
The Bell Tower
The Bell Tower stands in the south-west corner of the Inner Ward. It was built in the 13th century and is so called because of the belfry on top. In the past, when the bell was rung in alarm, drawbridges were raised, portcullises were dropped, and gates shut. The bell is still rung in the evening to warn visitors on the wharf it is time to leave.
Among the most famous prisoners confined to the Bell Tower was Sir
Thomas More imprisoned there in 1534. More, at one time close friends with
Henry VIII, refused to acknowledge the validity of the king's divorce from
Queen Catherine of Aragon (thereby refusing to accept the Act of
Succession) and to acknowledge him as supreme head of the Church.
Catherine, it should be noted, was the daugther of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, known for financing the expeditions of Christopher Columbus. More was executed July 1535 and buried in St Peters Chapel.
Henry VIII's penchant for imprisoning family was not lost on his
children apparently. This involved two of his daughters (by two different
mothers), both of whom would one day rule. Princess Elizabeth, later
Elizabeth I, was also imprisoned in the Bell Tower -- sent there in 1554 by her half-sister Mary I on suspicion of being concerned in plots against the throne.
The Bloody Tower
Originally this was known as the Garden Tower for the constable's garden that was by it. The square-shaped structure at one time served as a gateway to the Inner Ward. Its lowest level was built by Henry III and the other storeys were added later. It gained its present name in the 16th century because of the murderous deeds, which took place in its dark rooms.
The most notorious deed was the killing of the princes, Edward V and
his younger brother Richard, Duke of York. This occurred in 1483 supposedly
on the orders of the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III, but there
are some who strongly oppose this view and name Henry Tudor, later Henry
VII as the culprit.
The generally accepted version of the murder is that Elizabeth
Woodville, widow of Edward IV, was forced to allow her sons to live in the
Tower, ostensibly to enable the 13-year-old king to prepare for his coronation. Sir Robert Brackenbury was asked to take part in the murder but refused to help. Thereupon Sir James Tyrrell was sent to the Tower with orders to force the Constable to surrender his keys for one night. Sir
James agents found the two boys asleep. One was suffocated with a pillow while the other boy was stabbed to death. The murderers carried the bodies down the narrow stairway and buried them under a covering of rubble in the basement. They were later reburied by Sir Robert Brackenbury close to the
White Tower, but all knowledge of the graves was lost. In 1674 skeletons of two boys were unearthed near the White Tower, and in the belief that the grave of the princes had been found the king ordered the bodies to be moved to Westminster Abbey.
Many other figures in history suffered imprisonment or death in the
Bloody Tower. Archbishop Cranmer and Bishops Ridley and Latimer who were condemned to death for heresy in 1555, were imprisoned in the Tower before being burned at the stake at Oxford. Henry Percy died there in mysterious circumstances in 1585. The infamous Judge Jeffreys was prisoner here as well. Sir Thomas Overbury, poet and courtier, was a victim of court intrigue. His food is supposed to have been poisoned, and he is supposed to have swallowed enough poison to have killed 20 men before he died in 1613.
Sir Walter Raleigh spent most of his 13 years of imprisonment in the Bloody
Tower, but he was able to perform many scientific experiments. He is credited with having discovered a method of distilling fresh water from salt water. Also during his imprisonment he wrote his vast History of the
World which was published in 1614, four years before he was beheaded at
The Salt Tower
This tower, yet another built by Henry III, about 1235 was used in later days as a prison for Jesuits. It contains a number of interesting inscriptions, the most notable being a complicated diagram cut in stone for casting horoscopes. The inscription records that "Hew Draper of Brystow made this sphere the 30 daye of Maye anno 1561". Draper was imprisoned for attempted witchcraft in 1561.
In several places on the walls a pierced heart, hand, and foot have been carved. This symbol signifies the wounds of Christ. As in other towers where the Jesuits were imprisoned. The monogram I.H.S, with a cross above the H, occurs in several places -- the sign made by the Society of Jesus.
The Beauchamp Tower
Henry III and his son, Edward I, are to be attributed to the creation
of the Beauchamp Tower. Henry III is responsible for many of the towers and
structures in the Tower of London, with eight wall towers built during the
latter part of his reign. It was during Edward's reconstruction of the
western section that he replaced a twin-towered gatehouse built by Henry
with the Beauchamp Tower around 1275-81.
Architecturally, the large amount of brick used, as opposed to solely that of stone, was innovative at its time for castle construction. The tower takes its name from Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, imprisoned 1397-99 by Richard II. The three-storey structure was used often for prisoners of high rank.
Of special interest are the inscriptions carved on the stone walls
here by prisoners. The most elaborate is a memorial to the five brothers
Dudley, one of whom was Lord Guildford Dudley, husband of Lady Jane Grey.
This unhappy pair were executed in 1554.
The Wakefield Tower
Opposite Traitors Gate is the Wakefield Tower built in the early 13th
century. Here the Crown Jewels were housed from 1870 until 1967. The tower
has 2 chambers, the ground floor acting as a guardroom to the postern which
led to the royal apartments above. These apartments were destroyed by
Cromwell. The upper floor now contains a large and magnificent octagonal vaulted chamber in which there is an oratory.
Wakefield Tower was probably named after William de Wakefield, Kings
Clerk and holder of the custody of the Exchanges in 1334. In the 14th century the State records were transferred to the Wakefield Tower from the
White Tower, and in surveys of the period the building is referred to as the Records Tower.
Henry VI died in the Wakefield Tower on May 21st 1471. Henry VI, who was also founder of Eton College, and of Kings College, Cambridge, is supposed to have been murdered on the orders of the Duke of Gloucester, later Richard III.
The Martin Tower
Built by Henry III this tower is famous as the scene of Colonel Thomas
Bloods fruitless attempt to steal the Crown Jewels. After the Restoration, the newly-made regalia was kept in the Martin Tower (known at the time as the Jewel Tower) in sole custody of the Deputy Keeper of the Jewels, a man named Talbot Edwards who lived with his family in the tower.
Blood, disguised as a clergyman, became very friendly with Edwards, even to the point of proposing a marriage between the old mans' daughter and a supposed nephew of his. Early on a May morning in 1671, the colonel appeared by appointment with his "nephew" and a friend to arrange the marriage. While awaiting the ladies, Blood suggested that his friends might see the Crown Jewels. As soon as the chamber was opened Edwards was attacked and badly injured. Blood hid the State Crown beneath his cloak; one accomplice slipped the Orb into his breeches, while the other began filing the sceptre in half to make it more portable. They were then unexpectedly disturbed by Edward's son returning from abroad and a running fight followed during which all three were captured.
Blood eventually obtained an audience with Charles II to whom he
remarked that "it was a gallant attempt." Charles -- with uncharacteristic
leniency -- immediately pardoned Blood, granted him a pension and promised
that his Irish estates, seized at the Restoration, would be restored.
Edwards, on the other hand, was granted 200 pounds by the Exchequer and his son was given 100 pounds. The old man, however, was forced to sell off his expectation for half its value, and he died of his injuries soon afterwards.
The White Tower
The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I. It is 90 feet high and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above the battlements rise four turrets; three of them are square, but that on the Northeast is circular. This turret once contained the first royal observatory.
The original single entrance was on the south side and it was reached
by an external staircase. There were no doors at ground level. The walls on
the upper floors were penetrated by narrow slits positioned in wide splays.
On the southern side, four pairs of original double slits remain. In late
17th and early 18th centuries all others were replaced by Sir Christopher
Wren with the windows seen today.
Рекомендуем скачать другие рефераты по теме: курсовые, реферат образование, рефераты по истории.
Предыдущая страница реферата | 1 2 3 4 5 | Следующая страница реферата